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Synchronization in Coupled
Chaotic Systems [PPT]
Because of its potential practical
applications such as secure communication, the phenomenon of synchronization in
coupled chaotic systems has become a field of intensive research. Our main concerns on the chaos synchronization
are as follows.
(1) Bifurcation Mechanism for the Loss of Chaos Synchronization [PPT]
When
identical chaotic systems synchronize, a synchronous chaotic attractor (SCA)
exists on an invariant subspace. If the SCA is stable against a perturbation
transverse to the invariant subspace, it may become an attractor in the whole
phase space. Such transverse stability of the SCA is intimately associated with
transverse bifurcations of periodic saddles embedded in the SCA. If all periodic saddles
are transversely stable, the SCA is strongly stable.
However, as the coupling parameter passes a threshold value, a periodic saddle
first becomes transversely unstable through a local bifurcation. Then, the SCA
becomes weakly stable. We investigate the
bifurcation mechanism for the transition from strong to weak synchronization in
unidirectionally coupled systems. It is thus found that a direct transition to global riddling occurs
via a
transcritical
contact bifurcation between a periodic saddle embedded in the SCA and a
repeller on the basin boundary. After such a riddling
transition, the basin becomes globally riddled with a dense set of ``holes,''
leading to divergent trajectories. Note that this bifurcation mechanism is
different from that in symmetrically coupled systems. The effect
of asymmetry on the bifurcation mechanism for the loss of chaos
synchronization is also
studied in a system of asymmetrically coupled 1D maps that contains a parameter
$\alpha$ tuning the ``degree'' of the asymmetry from the symmetricallycoupled
case ($\alpha=0$) to the unidirectionallycoupled case ($\alpha=1$). Furthermore,
mechanisms for the hard bubbling transition, giving rise to abrupt
appearance of intermittent bursts with
large amplitude, are elucidated in symmetrically coupled systems. For more
details, see the following publications:
[1] S.Y. Kim and W. Lim, "Mechanism for the riddling transition in coupled
chaotic systems," Phys. Rev. E 63, 026217 (2001).
[2] S.Y. Kim, W. Lim, and Y. Kim, "New riddling bifurcation in asymmetric
dynamical systems," Prog. Theor. Phys. 105, 187196 (2001).
[3] W. Lim, S.Y. Kim, and Y. Kim, "Riddling transition in asymmetric dynamical
systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 38, 532535 (2001).
[4] S.Y. Kim and W. Lim, "Effect of asymmetry on the loss of chaos
synchronization," Phys. Rev. E 64, 016211 (2001).
[5] W.K. Lee, Y. Kim, and S. Y. Kim, "Loss of periodic synchronization in
unidirectionally coupled nonlinear systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 40, 788792
(2002).
[6] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Global effect of transverse bifurcations in coupled
chaotic systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 193201 (2003).
[7] S.Y. Kim and W. Lim, "Mechanisms for the hard bubbling transition in
symmetrically coupled chaotic systems," J. Phys. A 36, 69516961 (2003).
(2)
Effect of the parameter mismatch and noise on
weak synchronization [PPT]
A transition from strong to weak synchronization occurs through a
first transverse bifurcation of a periodic saddle embedded in the SCA. For this
case, intermittent bursting or basin riddling takes place, depending on the
global dynamics. If the global dynamics of the system is bounded and there are
no attractors off the invariant subspace, locally repelled trajectories exhibit
transient intermittent burstings. On the other hand, if the global dynamics is
unbounded or there exists an attractor off the invariant subspace, repelled
trajectories may go to another attractor (or infinity), and hence the basin
becomes riddled with a dense set of ``holes,'' belonging to the basin of another
attractor (or infinity). In a real situation, a small mismatch between the
subsystems and a small noise are unavoidable. Hence, the effect of the parameter
mismatch and noise must be taken into consideration for the study on the loss of
chaos synchronization. In the regime of weak synchronization, a typical
trajectory may have segments exhibiting positive local transverse Lyapunov
exponents because of local repulsion of periodic repellers embedded in the SCA.
For this case, any small mismatch or noise results in a permanent intermittent
bursting and a chaotic transient with a finite lifetime for the bursting and
riddling cases, respectively. These attractor bubbling and chaotic transient
demonstrates the sensitivity of the weakly stable SCA with respect to the
variation of the mismatching parameter and the noise intensity. To measure the
``degree'' of the parameter (noise) sensitivity, we introduce a quantifier,
called the parameter (noise) sensitivity exponent [PSE (NSE)] in two
coupled 1D maps. As the coupling parameter is changed away from the first
transverse bifurcation point, successive transverse bifurcations of periodic
saddles occur. Hence, the value of PSE (NSE) increases, because local transverse
repulsion of periodic repellers becomes more and more strong. Thus, the
parameter (noise) sensitivity of the weakly stable SCA is quantitatively
characterized in terms of the PSEs (NSEs). Furthermore, the values of the PSE and NSE become
the same, independently of the detailed properties of the paramter mismatch and
noise, because the degree of the sensitivity is determined only by the same
local transverse Lyapunov exponents of the ``unperturbed'' SCA in the absence of
the parameter mismatch and noise. In terms of such PSE (NSE), we characterize
the parametermismatching and noise effect on the bubbling and riddling. Thus,
it is found that the scaling exponent $\mu$ for the average characteristic time (i.e.,
the average interburst interval and the average chaotic transient lifetime) for
the bubbling and riddling cases is given by the reciprocal of the PSE (NSE). We
also extend the method of quantitatively characterizing the parameter (noise)
sensitivity in terms of the PSE (NSE) to the highdimensional coupled invertible
systems such as the coupled Henon maps and coupled pendula. It is thus found
that the reciprocal relation between the scaling exponent $\mu$ and the PSE (NSE)
seems to be ``universal,'' because it holds in typical coupled chaotic systems.
For more details, see the following publications:
[1] S.Y. Kim, W.Lim, and Y.Kim, "Effect of parameter mismatch and noise on weak
synchronization," Prog. Theor. Phys. 107, 239252 (2002).
[2] A. Jalnine and S.Y. Kim, "Characterization of the parametermismatching
effect on the loss of chaos synchronization," Phys. Rev. E 65, 026210 (2002).
[3] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Effect of parameter mismatch and noise on the loss of
chaos synchronization," Sae Mulli (New Physics) 45, 16 (2002) (in Korean).
[4] S.Y. Kim, W. Lim, A. Jalnine, and S.P. Kuznetsov, "Characterization of the
noise effect on weak synchronization," Phys. Rev. E 67, 016217 (2003).
[5] S.Y. Kim, A. Jalnine, W. Lim, and S. P. Kuznetsov, "Characterization of the
parametermismatching and noise effect on weak synchronization," Applied
Nonlinear Dynamics. 11, 8186 (2003).
[6] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Parametermismatching effect on the attractor
bubbling in coupled chaotic systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 510513 (2004).
[7] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Universality for the parametermismatching effect on
weak synchronization in coupled chaotic systems," J. Phys. A 37, 82338244
(2004).
[8] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Noise effect on weak chaotic synchronization in
coupled invertible systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 287294 (2004).
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(3)
Dynamical Consequence of Blowout Bifurcations [PPT]
After the first transverse bifurcation of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO)
embedded in the SCA, the UPOs are decomposed into
two groups. The first group consists of transversely stable periodic saddles,
while the second group is composed of transversely unstable periodic repellers.
As the coupling parameter is changed from the first transverse bifurcation
point, the ``weight'' of periodic repellers increases, because periodic saddles
are transformed into periodic repellers via successive transverse bifurcations.
Thus, bubbling and riddling effects becomes intensified. Eventually their weights
of periodic saddles and repellers become balanced at a Blowout Bifurcation
point, at which the transverse Lyapunov exponent of the SCA becomes zero.
Consequently, the SCA becomes transversely unstable, and a complete
desynchronization occurs. The global effect of the blowout bifurcation depends
on the global dynamics. If the global dynamics is bounded and there is no
attractor off the invariant synchronization subspace, then a new asynchronous
attractor appears via
a supercritical blowout bifurcation, and then it exhibits an
intermittent bursting, called the onoff Intermittency. However, if the global
dynamics is unbounded or there exists another attractor off the invariant
synchronization subspace, then an abrupt collapse of the synchronized chaotic state
occurs through a subcritical blowout bifurcation, and then typical
trajectories near the synchronization subspace are attracted to another attractor (or infinity).
The dynamical consequence of the supercritical blowout bifurcation is particularly
studied. First, we investigate the mechanism for the symmetrypreserving and
breaking blowout bifurcations, giving rise to the birth of symmetric and
asymmetric asynchronous chaotic attractors, in symmetrically coupled 1D maps. Note
that
asynchronous attractors, born via blowout bifurcations, may become chaotic or
hyperchaotic. Hence, the dynamical origin for the occurrence of asynchronous
hyperchaos and chaos is also
investigated through competition between the laminar and bursting components of
the newlyborn asynchronous attractor exhibiting the onoff intermittency. When
the ``strength'' of the bursting component is larger (smaller) than that of the
laminar component, an asynchronous hyperchaotic (chaotic) attractor appears.
For more details, see the following publications:
[1] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Symmetryconserving and breaking blowout
bifurcations in coupled chaotic systems," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 38, 528531
(2001).
[2] S.Y. Kim, W. Lim, E. Ott, and B. Hunt, "Dynamical origin for the occurrence
of asynchronous hyperchaos and chaos via blowout bifurcations," Phys. Rev. E 68,
066203 (2003).
[3] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "On the consequence of blowout bifurcations," J.
Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 202206 (2003).
(4) Partial
Synchronization in Coupled Chaotic Systems [PPT]
We investigate the dynamical mechanism for the partial
synchronization in three coupled 1D maps. A completely synchronized
attractor on the main diagonal becomes transversely unstable via a blowout
bifurcation, and then a twocluster state appears on an invariant subspace. If
the twocluster state becomes transversely stable, then a partial
synchronization may occur on the invariant subspace. Otherwise, total
desynchronization takes place. It is found that the transverse stability of the
twocluster state may be determined through the competition between its laminar
and bursting components. When the ``strength'' of the laminar component is
larger (smaller) than that of the bursting component, a partially synchronized
(totally desynchronized) attractor appears through the blowout bifurcation.
Particularly, the effect of the asymmetry, range, and timedelay in the coupling
on the occurrence of the partial synchronization is investigated. In
real situation, a small mismatch between the subsystems and a small noise are
unavoidable. As in the case of the fully synchronized chaotic attractor, we
introduce the parameter and noise sensitivity exponents to quantitatively
measure the degree of the sensitivity of the partially synchronized chaotic
attractor. In terms of such sensitivity exponents, we also characterize the parametermismatching
and noise effect on the scaling behaviors associated with the
attractor bubbling. To examine the universality for the results obtained in the
coupled 1D maps, we also investigate the coupled Henon maps and coupled pendula.
For more details, see the following publication:
[1] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Mechanism for the partial synchronization in three
coupled chaotic systems," Phys. Rev. E 71, 035221 (2005).
[2] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "On the occurrence
of partial synchronization in unidirectionally coupled maps" J. Korean Phys. Soc.
46, 638641 (2005).
[3] W. Lim and S.Y. Kim, "Coupling effect on the occurrence of partial
synchronigation in four coupled chaotic systems," Phys. Lett. A 353, 398 (2006).
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